A Study on Occupational Health and Safety | BMC Public Health

It should be noted that absenteeism is a term used to denote an employee’s absence from work [13]. The International Labor Organization (OIT) defines it as the period of absence from work that is accepted as attributable to an individual’s incapacity, except as that resulting from natural pregnancy or imprisonment. [14].

According to the report of the National Audit Bureau [15], in Guernsey, UK, approximately 3.8% of working time was lost to illness, and civil servants became sick for an average of 8.7 days in 2005. In Chile, health workers belong to the category with the highest rates of disability due to illness, With 14.3 days of absence per worker per year; In contrast to university workers who give 6 lost work days per year, similar to the results of this research [16]. These results highlight the data shown in Figure 1.

Studies have found an average of 7.5 lost work days per year per worker in the nursing district of a university hospital in Brazil [17]🇧🇷 Santos and Matos [18] Note 9.3 days of absence due to illness per municipal worker in the city of Porto Alegre in 2005. Studies reported 9.1 and 10.3 days of absence due to illness per public employee in the municipalities of Goiania and São Paulo, respectively [19, 20].

Worker and financial conditions can cause work accidents and environmental conditions, increase work capacity and market, which may exclude work capacity and consumption. The employee is also affected by productivity, manpower shortages, loss of manpower, and/or equipment damage [21].

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates about 36 million annual deaths due to non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs), which mainly consist of circulatory diseases, neoplasia, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus (DM), which have risk factors. – Smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity – can generally be modified [22, 23].

An important characteristic of the epidemiological patterns in Brazil is the changes in the composition of morbidity and mortality by cause groups. Thus, the high prevalence of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases, which appeared at the beginning of the twentieth century, gave way to non-communicable diseases and injuries related to accidents and violence. [24].

In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health [23]Non-communicable diseases are among the leading causes of hospital admissions, and the financial cost to the SUS is a growing influence. For Brazil, it is estimated that lost work productivity and reduced household income resulting from chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and stroke involved $4.18 billion in spending between 2006 and 2015. [25].

Researchers Mora, Carvalho, and Silva (2007) [26] conducted a study on the implications of CNCDs in awarding social security benefits by the National Institute of Social Security (INSS) and identified diseases of the musculoskeletal system and circulatory system as major reasons for awarding sick pay.

This reality was also revealed among public service employees in several studies that presented the main groups of reasons for sick leave for this category of workers, with high rates of absenteeism due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, mental and behavioral disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases. Diseases of the circulatory system [7, 19, 27,28,29,30,31,32,33].

Implementing strategies to reduce absenteeism is a major challenge for employers, and it is essential to analyze workplace events to determine situational diagnoses and ensure actions to promote worker health. For the authors, the change in the disease epidemiology picture and the increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, shown in Figure 2, reveal the concern about the global scenario regarding the impact of these diseases on the health of workers, due to growth. in the number of lost work days [21].

The epidemiological profile of morbidity and mortality in Brazilian workers is characterized by the coexistence of diseases that have an intrinsic relationship to working conditions, and in addition, diseases common to the population, which are not etiologically related to work, are noted. [3]. In this reality, it is important to stress the importance of regular medical examination (PME) for employees, for the possible prevention and / or early detection of diseases that generate the greatest impact on lost work days, highlighting tumors [22].

The importance of the PME procedure in screening for risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases, such as dyslipidemia, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, and smoking, is highlighted. In addition, through the PME, workers will be directed and sent to participate in various health promotion programs offered by the institution. Through these strategies, it is possible to reduce the prevalence of diseases of the circulatory system, which is another important cause of absenteeism from work, as shown in Figure 2.

For Figure 3, which shows data on the PME, despite the weaknesses, it is clear that the most satisfactory results of joining the PME occurred in 2012, the time when the workers formed the Integrated Subsystem Unit (SIASS in Portuguese), as well as as the discussion continued participation in national forums, meetings, and PASS-related events, in the context of voicing an advocacy for the promotion of workers’ health concern measures, which may have contributed to the results [23,24,25].

On the other hand, the situational diagnosis of low adherence to PME throughout the historical series is likely influenced by the recent history of PASS construction and the negative impact of a lack of structuring, planning, and evaluation of procedures. In addition, the largest investments and training, by the Brazilian Ministry of Planning, were related to the field of experts which reflects the main activity of PASS [4].

Implementation and promotion of health monitoring procedures is a major challenge for the consolidation of SIASS, as it is still a recent practice to promote health in public sector workplaces. It is necessary to develop indicators to support the actions and allow the evaluation of the results, bearing in mind that the information generated through the indicators enhances the control and planning of organizational processes, as well as support for decision-making. [25, 26].

This is a preventive tool implemented in Brazil with workers from federal agencies to identify risk factors associated with future diseases. This approach to the federal public service has had an impact on the quality of preventive health, avoiding removing workers from their workplaces for a reason classified as potential prevention of this disease. Another aspect is the increasing number of absenteeism cases that have occurred in recent years, that is, the numbers of absenteeism due to physical and mental illnesses, a fact that is increasingly occurring in the age of younger workers, revealing the need for special attention and protection. Pursue their quality of life.

The results presented in this study deserve attention and can contribute to the discussions between the specialists of the technical team and the directors of the SIASS and PROGESP / UFRN unit, since it is believed that the production of knowledge on the subject under study can provide the university as well as other institutions at the federal public service level, through PME as an indicator for planning and evaluating occupational health procedures.

Thus, continuous investment in targeted health policies for public servants, contributing to the reduction of illness and early retirement resulting from disability, is suggested. In this sense, it is also recommended to invest in research that allows for a better understanding of the relationship between health and work in the public service.

It should be noted that this study had some limitations, as the use of self-reported data by staff who completed the rigorous control assessment may underestimate or overestimate the results presented.

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