Some archaea have been found to have integrases, allowing gene transfer across the domain

وجدت بعض العتائق أنها تحتوي على إنتغريتات ، مما يسمح بنقل الجينات عبر المجال attC × attI ). (A) A schematic diagram outlining the experimental setup for cassette insertion assays. A kanamycin-resistant suicide vector (Km R ) pJP5603 with site attC to the recipient E. coli UB5201 by pairing. The recipient strain carries a gene intI1 expressed from the promoter of P BAD Agitator, site attI1 which is found to be carpenicillin-resistant (Cb < sup> R ) pBAD24 and chloramphenicol resistance (Cm R ) pACYC184 backbones, respectively. The donor suicide vector cannot replicate within the recipient host and can therefore only persist after recombination attC × attI To form a plasmid co-integration. (b) Average recombination frequencies (log 10 scale, ±1 SE) between attI1 and nine attex Archaeal (with the original phylum labeled along the x) and typical bacterial loci attC ( attC aadA7 ), used as a positive control. Frequencies were averaged after three independent examinations of cassette insertion (see Materials and Methods for details). No significant differences in recombination frequencies were detected between attCs tested (Kruskal-Wallis test, n = 27; df = 8, P = 0.488). The recombination frequencies of the lower strands are shown attC Just. See Table S1 for recombination frequencies of the upper leads attC . NS, not great. credit: Science advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / sciadv.abq6376″ width=”800″ height=”440″/>

cassette recruitment (Atk × came Reassemble). (A) A schematic diagram outlining the experimental setup for cassette insertion assays. kanamycin resistance (Kms) suicide vector pJP5603 with a stretch Atk The site is delivered to the recipient coli UB5201 strain by conjugation. carries the receiver’s dynasty you 1 The gene expressed from the inducer P.bad promoter, w AttI1 site, resident on carpenicillin resistance (Cbs) pBAD24 and chloramphenicol resistance (cms) pACYC184 backbones, respectively. The donor suicide vector cannot replicate within the recipient host and can therefore only continue to persist Atk × came Recombination to form a plasmid co-fusion. (b) Average recombination frequencies (log10 scale, ±1 SE) between AttI1 and nine artifacts attex (with the original phylum labeled along the x-axis) and typical bacteria Atk Site (AtkaadA7), used as a positive control. Frequencies were averaged after three independent examinations of cassette insertion (see Materials and Methods for details). No significant differences in recombination frequencies were detected between the two laboratories attex (Kruskal-Wallis test, n = 27; df = 8, P = 0.488). Recombination frequencies are shown Atk Bottom threads only. See Table S1 for an Atk Higher frequencies of strand recombination. NS, not great. attributed to him: Science advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq6376

A team of researchers at Macquarie University, in Australia, has found evidence to show that some archaea have integrons. In their paper published in the journal Science advancesthe group describes how they used a recently developed technique called metagenome-assembled genomes (MAG) to study the genomes of archaea samples in a new way, and what they learned by doing so.

Life on Earth is divided into three domains, eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea. The third domain, Archaea, is similar to bacteria—its members are often called Archaebacteria. Like bacteria, archaea are unicellular but unlike bacteria depend on lipids in their cell membranes.

In this new effort, the researchers were investigating the means by which bacteria and genes can exchange genes and wondered if they might have integrons—gene capture and dissemination systems in bacteria that use gene cassettes to pass on the respective proteins. To find out, they turned to MAG technology — a technology that allows searching for single gene and genomic recombination sites called AttC, a sequence encoding the protein Integron Integrase (IntI).

Using this technique, they find many matches. Of the 6,700 genomes they scanned, they found 75 matches, across nine phyla, each evidence of complementarity. And it turned out that they all had the same structure as integrins in bacteria, which suggested the use of the cassette.

The researchers believe this indicates that the archaea they identified should be able to swap genes with bacteria and vice versa, as easily as bacteria swap genes between themselves. To prove their idea was correct, they synthesized AttC from a sample of Archaea and exposed it to a sample of Escherichia coli. Testing showed that the cassettes were created to allow gene exchange to occur.

Finding intetrons in Archaea would certainly open up new avenues of research. One is research into the possibility that switching genes from archaea to recent bacteria can help them become resistant to drugs intended to kill them. The researchers also note that it would be beneficial to provide a complete genome for archaea.

more information:
Timothy M. Galli et al., Discovery of integrators in Archaea: platforms for cross-domain gene transfer, Science advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abq6376

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